Frequently Asked Questions

(Solar Water Heater)

Q.No.1: What is Solar Water Heater?

Answer: A Solar Water Heater is a device which provides hot water for bathing, washing, cleaning,etc. using solar energy.  It is generally installed at the terrace or where sunlight is available and heats water during day time which  is stored  in  an insulated  storage  tank for use  when required including mornings.

Q.No.  2: How does it work?

Answer: A Solar Water Heater comprises of a or an array of solar collectors to collect solar energy and an insulated tank to store hot water. Both are connected to each other. During the day time, water in solar collectors gets heated which is either pumped or flown automatically on thermosyphon principle to the storage tank.Hot water then stored in the tank can be used for various applications.

Q.No. 3: What are different types of Solar Water Heaters?

Answer: Two types of Solar Water Heaters are available; one based on flat plate collectors and the other based on evacuated tube collectors. Flat plate collector (FPC) based systems are of metallic type and have longer life as compared  to Evacuated tube  collector (ETC)  based system because ETCs are made of glass which are of fragile in nature.

Both these systems are available with and without heat exchanger. They can also work with and without pump.  Systems without pump are known asthermosyphon systems and those with pump are known asforced circulation systems.

Q.No. 4: Which type of solar water heater is suitable for different places / category of users?

Answer: ETC based systems are cheaper than FPC based system. They perform better in colder regions and avoid freezing problem during sub-zero temperature.  FPC based systems also perform well with anti-freeze solution at sub zero temperature but their cost increases.  In other regions, both perform equally well.

Systems working on thermosyphon principle are simple and relatively inexpensive.  They are  suitable for domestic  and  small institutional  applications, provided  water quality is good  and  it doesn’t have  large chlorine contents. Forced circulation systems are generally preferred in industries or large establishments.

At places where water is hard and have larger chlorine content, if FPC based system is being installed, it must be with heat exchanger as it will  avoid scale deposition in copper tubes of solar collectors which can block the flow of water as well reduce its thermal performance. ETC based systems will not block the flow of water but its performance may go down due to deposition of salt contents on inner surface of glass tubes, which could be cleaned easily once in a year or so.

Q.No. 5: What is the approximate cost of solar water heater?

Answer: Cost of solar water heater depends on size and type of system installed. Smallest size of a system is 100 litres per day, which means that it can deliver 100 litres of hot water in a day at 60C.  A 100 lpd capacity system insufficient for a family of 3-4 members and it may cost Rs.15,000 to Rs.22, 000.

The system cost does not include the cost of cold water tank, & its stand which is required if overhead tank is not installed in a house/ building. Cost of hot water insulated pipe line also, may be extra if number of bathrooms  is more than one.  Additional Cost towards all these components may increase by 5 to 10%.  The cost,however, does not increase linearly with increase in capacity; rather it comes down proportionately as we go for higher capacity system.

Q.No. 6: Is there any subsidy available from Government?

Answer: Yes, the Haryana Government provides subsidy in the Domestic Sector @ Rs. 6000/- per 100 LPD (2Sq. M) subjectto max. Up to 300 LPD for SWHS with FPC and Rs. 1500/- per 100 LPD (1.5 Sq.M) on ETC system subject to max. Up to 300 LPD. 

Q.No. 7: Why should I go for a Solar Water Heater? What do I save from it?

Answer: A 100 litres per day capacity system suitable for 3-4 people can save upto 1500 units of electricity in a year, depending on hot water used.  It can also save around 140 litres of diesel in an establishment using oil fired boiler besides reducing green house gase missions in the atmosphere. Higher capacity systems will save higher amount of electricity/fuel oil besides reducing higher amount of GHG emissions.

Electricity is expensive and is not available due to power cuts in many areas when required for heating water.  Solar Water Heater, since it stores hot water in an insulated tank, provides water all the time when required. Fuel oil is also expensive and creates pollution. Storing the fuel oil for long term use in commercial establishments is another problem. The table below gives approximate likely electricity and money savings for at ypical 100 litres per day system located in different parts of the country.


Expected no. of days of use of hot water per year

200 days

Expected yearly electricity saving on full use of solar hot water (units of electricity)


Monetary savings at different prices of electricity, Rs/year

Rs. 4/ kwh


Rs. 5/kwh


Rs. 6/kwh


Q.No. 8: What happens on cloudy/rainy day? Do I still get hot water?

Answer: On cloudy days also, if it is for a day or two, you still get warm water as water gets heated due to diffused radiation available in the atmosphere. The system, however, is either connected to an electric geyser in the house or an electrical back-up is provided in the storage tank of the system which is switched on when water is not sufficiently hot. So, you get hot water all the time even on rainy days.

Q.No. 9: How do I assure that a goodquality system is installed at my house?

Answer:  MNRE/GOI has laid down some minimum technical requirements for installation of solar water heating systems in the field. These have been made mandatory for manufacturers and suppliers and are available on MNRE website:  These requirements are have been prepared in such a way that even a lay man can also check them and ensure that those are being adhered to by the manufacturers/suppliers. In case any manufacturer/supplier   is found not sticking to these requirements, he may be black listed if informed to the Ministry.

Q.No. 10: Are there any maintenance requirements?

Answer: Domestic solar water heating systems do not need significant maintenance requirements.  Occasional leakages in the plumbing could be easily repaired by common plumbers. In case quality of water is hard, scale deposition in the collectors may result over the years. This may require de-scaling with acids for which it is best to contact the suppliers. Broken glass may also have to be replaced by the suppliers. If outside exposed surfaces are painted, the paint may have to be redone every 2-3 years to prevent corrosion of the surfaces.

Q.No. 11: Any trouble shooting guide for solar water heating systems?

Answer:  Some of the troubleshooting are mentioned below:

Problem faced

Probable cause and remedies

No water in tap

- No cold water supply

- Wall at the outlet of system closed

- Air lock in the pipes

Water not heated at all, although cold water flow is normal

- Consumption of hot water may be too high;   

- Check use points and use pattern

- Collector may be shaded

- No flow of  water through the Collector as it might be choked due to scaling; Get it checked from the manufacturer

Water not hot enough or sufficient quantity of hot water is not available

- Cloudy weather

- Consumption too high

- Frequent on-off of hot water tap

- Collector dirty

- Vapour lock in the collector which can be removed by allowing it to cool & draining the system

- Partial choking of the collector

Little quantity of boiling hot water is received

- Vapour locking in the collector

- Pinched inlet/outlet pipes